Ocean dynamics has a nonnegligible influence on the design loads of an off-shore wind turbine. Hence, according to the guidelines IEC61400-3 or Germanischer Lloyd, a decent load calculation has to consider the interaction between water (waves, flow) and the off-shore foundation. In addition, e.g. in the baltic sea, formation of ice is also relevant. Windrad Engineering has particular expertise in the diverse possiblities of ice formation, its state-of-the-art treatment as well as its inclusion into the load simulation.


For load simulation a variaty of foundation modules have been developed:

  • Monopile
  • Tripod
  • Gravitational foundation
  • Jacket (as equivalent monopiles with respect to frequency and hydrodynamical coefficients)

All interactions between waves and foundation are calculated according to the standard Morison equation. In addition, for very small waves, back scattering due to McCamy-Fuchs theory s considered. On request further modele can be developed. The load caclulation includes

  • Setup of guideline compliant design load cases
  • Consideration of site-specific input data
  • Consideration of particular BSH-demands for foundation
  • Creation of compliant wind and wave scenarios
  • Evaluation of all relevant loads
  • Preparation of load reports for certification


For load assessment we support our customers by

  • Accomplishment of comparison calculations for certification
  • Testing of compliance against GL or IEC guideline